PERIODONTICS (GUM DISEASES)

Gum disease is a progressive inflammatory disease of the gums and the surrounding tissue around the teeth. It is commonly known as gum disease and was referred to as pyorrhea in the old days. It is estimated that up to 80% of the population above the age of 40 may suffer from this disease with the severity varying drastically from one person to another. Periodontitis is the number one cause of tooth loss after the age of 40. If you notice any of the following signs of gum disease, schedule an appointment immediately:

  • • Gums that bleed when you brush your teeth
  • • Red, swollen or tender gums
  • • Gums that have pulled away from the teeth
  • • Bad breath that doesn't go away
  • • Pus between your teeth and gums
  • • Loose teeth
  • • A change in the way your teeth fit together when you bite
  • • A change in the fit of partial dentures

Bleeding gums – causes and treatment

What do bleeding gums mean?

Whenever you are consuming food, food is forced between your teeth. Occasionally the food between your teeth is big enough to feel but many times it is not ,this food will either be removed by flossing or brushing or it will stick whether it is getting a good environment ,it breaks in to bacteria and acids. These bacteria cause gum disease or bleeding gums.

Spitting blood when you brush your teeth is not natural. It could be an early sign of gum disease and can be an initial stop on the trip to tooth loss. If you see blood in the sink when you brush occasionally or everyday, you should never overlook it and rather take effort into how to stop oozing gums.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

First stage is gingivitis; it is identified by gingival inflammation/swelling in gums caused by bacteria. Gums become red, swollen forming blood bumps inside the pockets of gum tissue.surrounding your teeth. These blood bumps on brushing and flossing burst out and blood moves to the top of gingival which is very obviuos and we can see it and you may have a bad breath.

If gingivitis is not treated, a second stage or condition called periodontitis develops. This infects the tissues that support teeth and hold them in place. If it is not cured the bone in your jaw can get deteriorated. Small spaces can open between gums and teeth; teeth become free and may finally fall out.

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CAUSES OF BLEEDING GUMS

  • • Abscessed tooth
  • • Gum disease
  • • Improper brushing and flossing
  • • Haemophilia
  • • HIV
  • • ITP
  • • Leukaemia
  • • Poor oral hygiene
  • • Smoking
  • • Poor nutrition
  • • Pregnancy
  • • Yellow fever
  • • Dentures that don’t fit.

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HOW TO KEEP GUMS AND TEETH HEALTHY

  • • Brushing your teeth twice a day with fluoride tooth paste
  • • Flossing frequently to remove plaque between the teeth
  • • Vesting the dentist habitually for a check up and professional cleaning for at least every 6 months
  • • Discontinuing smoking
  • • Rinse with salt water eat a balanced diet and avoid snacking between meals
  • • Try an oral irrigation device to clear debris from the gum line

SEEING YOUR DENTIST

  • • You should make an appointment and visit your dentist if your gums are burning, painful, swollen or if they bleed when you brush your teeth
  • • Dentist carries out an elaborate dental examination to check the condition of your gum. This involves inserting a fine metal stick with a curve bend in one end (perio.probe) besides each tooth.
  • • Dentist also takes some xrays to inspect the health of your teeth and jaw bone.

PREVENTION AND TREATMENT

  • • Mild cases of gum disease can be usually treated or you can say it is reversible by sustaining a good level of oral hygiene like brushing and flossing.
  • • Acute gum disease require more comprehensive treatment .: in this deep pockets between tissue and bone ,these pockets get easily infected and without eliminating the infection it can vertibly spread through your jaw, eventually ,acing its way to eyes and brain, in more worse cases can lead to blindness and even death.
  • • Conventionally dentists recommend gum surgery/flap surgery to eliminate the infection, but unhappily that normally involves a equitably invasive procedure including slicing, sutures and along debilitating recovery time.
  • • However, a new LASER TECHNOLOGY called PERIO LASE may offer a high grade alternative without invasiveness of surgery. Rather it inserts a tiny laser fibber approx. Thickness of 3 hairs (200µm) between teeth and gums to clear away the infection

BENEFITS OF LASER THERAPY

  • • NO CUTTING –pergolas doesn’t cut into your gums like surgery, which also discards the need for sutures.
  • • LESS DISCOMFITURE-periolase is far less painful during and after the procedure than surgery. The procedure is so non-invasive that it only requires local anaesthesia.
  • • SHORTER PROCEDURE-pergolas takes only 2 hr visits for treatment nod two follow up visits.
  • • BETTER RESULTS-laser has got lifelong results.
  • • FEW DIET INSTRUCTIONS-a dentist may recommend a soft diet for few days.
  • • SHORT RECPVERY TIME-recovery after a gum surgery may take2-4 weeks, but periolase recovery time is less than 24 hrs.
  • • SAFE FOR ALL PATIENTS-periolase is safe for all types of patients with some health issues like HIV, haemophilia or patients taking aspirin etc.
  • • With that in mind we will present some periodontal treatment outcomes in which standard periodontal techniques are incorporated with laser light to constraint chronic periodontitis or bone loss.

Laser Periodontal, or gum related care

Gum related care has greatly benefited from laser technology applications. Lasers are currently used for re-contouring or reshaping gums, removing extra or diseased gum tissue associated with the use of certain medications or periodontal disease. Additionally, lasers are used for removing the bacteria in periodontal pockets to promote patient recovery, and are credited for greatly reducing both recovery time and post operative distress and/or discomfort.
Gum and bone disease (periodontal disease) is a common infection that causes bad breath, sore gums, receding gums and bone and loose teeth. Sufferers may be putting their hearts at risk because the bacteria can attach to heart valves. This bacterial infection can also be transmitted to other people in your family thr laser dentist india

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Minor gums infections can be treated by ultrasonic and ozone cleaning with a hygienist, but more serious stages of gum disease usually need specialist care with a periodontist. Many times this involves surgery that can be costly and traumatic. The good news is with lasers we can offer more conservative and non-traumatic treatment for moderate to serious gum disease. We work closely with a local periodontist to ensure that if results are not achieved with the laser that they are able to assist.
Laser gum disease treatment does not involve cutting and sutures. It is much less invasive, usually painless and without swelling. Healing and recovery are very fast and you don't need to take extra days off work. This will save you time and money.


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Treatment of gum disease is aimed at cleaning the debris and toxins from beneath the gum-line. This is accomplished virtuously painlessly and comfortably using the latest and most conservative approach that suits your particular stage of disease. All phases of treatment is provided by certified dentist using Laser technology.
When lasers are used during periodontal therapy, there can be less bleeding, swelling and discomfort to the patient. Scalpels and stiches are often not necessary resulting in quick and comfortable healing.
Laser therapy can be more effective in addressing the infectious nature of periodontal disease than traditional methods. The laser can physically interact with the bacteria and kill the organism by the absorption of laser energy. Studies have shown the laser’s ability to reduce 99.4% of the bacteria in a periodontal lesion. In addition, the laser can assist in forming a fibrin clot eliminating post-surgical bleeding and providing a quick and comfortable healing.

Cosmetic Periodontal Surgery

These procedures are a predictable way to cover unsightly, sensitive or exposed root surfaces and to prevent future gum recession. If you are unhappy with the appearance of short unsightly teeth this can be greatly improved by a combination of periodontal procedures and cosmetic dentistry.
Although your teeth appear short, they may actually be the proper length. The teeth may be covered with too much gum tissue. We can correct this by performing the periodontal plastic surgery procedure, crown lengthening.
During this procedure, excess gum and bone tissue is reshaped to expose more of the natural tooth. This can be done to more than one tooth, to even your gum line, and to create a beautiful smile.
Another cosmetic procedure is the soft tissue graft. It is used to cover unattractive tooth roots, reduce gum recession and protect the roots from decay and eventual loss.
Tooth loss causes the jawbone to recede and can lead to an unnatural looking indentation in your gums and jaw, an appearance of a general aging. The original look of your mouth may not be recaptured because of spaces remaining under and between replacement teeth. They may appear too long compared to nearby teeth.
Bone grafting following tooth loss can preserve the socket/ridge and minimize gum and bone collapse. There is less shrinkage and a more esthetic tooth replacement for either an implant crown or fixed bridge around the replacement teeth.

Flap Surgery

Periodontal Flap Surgery, which is also called pocket depth reduction, your periodontist folds the gum back away from the tooth. Periodontal Flap surgery is recommended in many cases where pocketing depths have reached a level that makes maintenance or cleansing difficult. It is often associated with areas of bone loss and inflammation of the gum tissue around the teeth when scaling and root planing have been unsuccessful in eliminating the entire pocket of decay, or when there has been bone loss that needs to be surgically corrected, then a dentist may perform periodontal flap surgery.
In flap surgery, under local anesthesia, small incisions are made in the gum, so that it can be lifted back to expose the tooth and bone. The entire area is carefully cleaned and all tarter and infected granulation tissue are removed and the bone is examined. Because periodontal disease causes bone loss, often the bone will need to be re-contoured in order for the gum to heal properly.
After scraping away the bacteria-laden plaque and tartar, the dentist removes diseased tissue and smoothes the surface of damaged bones. Then the dentist sews the tissue back into place. Removing or smoothing damaged tissue allows the gum tissue to better reattach to healthy bone

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Gingivectomy

This procedure is performed when excess amounts of gum growth around the teeth have occurred. This results in false pocket formation and the inability to keep them clean.

Guided Tissue Regeneration

This procedure is done in combination with a surgical flap operation where gum growth into a defect is barriered off to allow slower growing bone, cementum and ligament cells to populate a bony defect.

Gingivoplasty

Gingivoplasty is a procedure in which we surgically reshape and re-contour the gum tissue for cosmetic, physiological, or functional purposes.
Gingivoplasty is the surgical reshaping of the outer surface of the gums and it's usually done in combination with gingivectomy. The term comes from gingiva meaning gums and the word ending -plasty meaning to reshape. Many patients have a gummy smile which is caused by excessive and overgrown gum tissue. Excess gum tissue can usually be removed to reveal a beautiful smile underneath.
After a gingivectomy procedure, the gingivoplasty procedure thins the remaining gums tissue so the tissue looks natural and pleasing. It's done this using an electrosurgery unit and a specially designed electrical cutting tip. The electrosurgery unit uses electricity to cut the gum tissues and at the same time, causes the gum tissues to clot and stop bleeding.
Gingivoplasty corrects the remaining thick and unnaturally shaped gum tissue left after the gingivectomy procedure exposes the hidden teeth. Natural gum tissue thins as it approaches and surrounds teeth. It can get confusing because the two procedures are almost always used at the same time. These procedures can also be used to reshape irregularly shaped and unattractive gums.
Gingivoplasty procedures are usually done with local anaesthetics. The electrosurgery equipment minimizes bleeding and most patients experience very little post operative pain after the procedure

Non-Surgical Therapy Periodontal Procedures

This procedure is performed when excess amounts of gum growth around the teeth have occurred. This results in false pocket formation and the inability to keep them clean.

Scaling

Scaling is procedure that meticulously removes contamination toxins, micro-organisms, plaque, tartar, cementum, dentin that is rough and/or permeated by calculus from around, below and under the gum line down to the bottom of the pocket. This is done to remove biofilm, calculus, and toxin down to the bottom of each periodontal pocket in order to obtain a healing response.

Root Planing

Root planing involves smoothing the root surfaces of your teeth with thin curettes so gum tissue can more firmly reattach to roots that are clean and smooth to prevent tooth loss and sensitivity problems. The procedure makes it more difficult for plaque to accumulate along the root surfaces. Because this procedure goes deeper than a regular cleaning, your mouth may be numbed. The cleaning may take two visits to complete. Depending on the extent of the disease you may need one or more sections (quadrants) of the mouth to be treated with scaling and root planing. Treatment may require one or more visits.

Periodontal scaling

It is a treatment procedure which involves the instrumentation of the crown and root surfaces of the teeth. Plaque, calculus, and stains will be removed from these surfaces. It is performed on patients with periodontal disease and is therapeutic, as apposed to prophylactic and may precede root planning. It is a definitive, meticulous treatment procedure aimed at the removal of cementum and/or dentin that is rough and is possibly permeated by calculus, or even contaminated with toxins or microorganisms. When carried out thoroughly, some unavoidable soft tissue removal occurs. This procedure can be used as a definitive treatment or as part of pre-surgical therapy ("tissue preparation") depending on how far the periodontal disease has advanced. Debriding the root surface is a critical element in establishing periodontal health.

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Antibiotics

Because bacteria cause periodontitis antibiotics may be prescribed as pills or as an Antibiotic fiber. The fibers are used in conjunction with scaling and root planing. They are placed directly into the pockets and are removed within 7-10 days later. Antibacterial mouth rinses may also be recommended to help plaque control.

Bite correction

An imbalanced bite may accelerate bone destruction. Your teeth may be adjusted for proper and better function. A Bite-guard (removable retainer fitting over teeth) may be required to protect teeth surfaces and relax tense muscles.

Splinting

This technique attaches weak teeth together, combining them into a stronger single unit, making them more sable and offering more comfortable chewing.